Human values and the design of computer technology
Many of us when we design and implement computer technologies focus on making a machine work – reliably, efficiently and correctly. Rarely do we focus on human values. Perhaps we believe in value-neutral technology. Perhaps we believe that issues of value belong only to social scientists, philosophers, or policy makers __________________. In their work, system designers necessarily impart moral and social values. Yet how? What values? Whose values? For if human values – such as freedom of speech, rights to property, accountability, privacy, and autonomy – are controversial, then on what basis do some values override others in the design of, say, hardware, algorithms, and databases? Moreover, how can designers working within a corporate structure and with a mandate to generate revenue bring value-sensitive design into the workplace?
Does technology have values?
Does technology have values? _____________________ About four decades ago, snowmobiles were introduced into the Inuit communities of the Arctic, and have now largely replaced travel by dog sleds. This technological innovation thereby altered not only patterns of transportation, but symbols of social status, and moved the Inuit toward a dependence on a money economy. Now a computer example. Electronic mail rarely displays the sender’s status. Is the sender a curious lay person, system analyst, full professor, journalist, assistant professor, entry level programmer, senior scientist, high school student? Who knows until the e-mail is read, and maybe not even then. This design feature (and associated conventions) has thereby played a significant role in allowing electronic communication to cross traditional hierarchical boundaries and to contribute to the restructuring of organizations. The point is this: In various ways, technological innovations do not stand apart from human values. But, still, what would it mean to say that technology has values?
In terms of computer system design, we are not so privileged as to determine rigidly the values that will emerge from the systems we design. But neither can we abdicate responsibility.
Dos cinco enunciados apresentados, indique dois que completam adequada e respectivamente as duas lacunas indicadas no texto:
(1) The three arguments may be correct.
(2) Let us consider two examples.
(3) Moral and social values are not important.
(4) Neither belief is correct.
(5) One example is enough to illustrate my point.
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